What Are “The Yips” in Baseball? Everything Players and Parents Need to Know

September 27, 2023
Rick Ankiel Yips

Rick Ankiel seemed destined for greatness from the start. In 1999, he was named the Minor League Player of the Year by both Baseball America and USA Today, setting the stage for what appeared to be a long and illustrious career. His rookie year with the St. Louis Cardinals was nothing short of stellar, as he quickly became one of the most exciting young pitchers in the game. The future looked bright, and Ankiel was hailed as the next big thing in baseball.

But then came October 3, 2000—a date that would forever change the trajectory of his career. During Game 1 of the National League Division Series against the Atlanta Braves, Ankiel unraveled in a way that left fans, teammates, and even opponents in disbelief. In just one inning, he threw five wild pitches, the most in a single playoff inning since 1890. The precision and control that had defined his game were gone, replaced by an inexplicable inability to throw strikes. It was as if an invisible force had taken control of his arm. This was Ankiel's first public encounter with the "yips," a mysterious condition that has baffled athletes for decades.

The yips are a perplexing and often career-altering phenomenon that can strike athletes in various sports, but they seem particularly cruel in baseball—a game of inches where precision is paramount. Whether you're a pitcher trying to paint the corners of the strike zone, a second baseman needing to make a routine throw to first, or a catcher tossing the ball back to the mound, the yips can transform these simple actions into Herculean tasks.

What makes the yips even more intriguing is their unpredictable nature. They can appear suddenly, without warning, turning All-Stars into amateurs and prospects into cautionary tales. And yet, as in the case of Rick Ankiel, who reinvented himself as a successful outfielder, they can also be a story of resilience and reinvention.

In this blog post, we'll delve deep into the enigmatic world of the yips in baseball. We'll explore its history, its impact on players' careers, and the scientific research attempting to unravel its mysteries. So, whether you're a player, a coach, or a fan, read on to discover more about this puzzling and often heartbreaking condition that has both ended and reborn careers in the world of baseball.

Key Takeaways

  • The yips in baseball are caused by physical and psychological factors, such as focal dystonia and performance anxiety.
  • Treatment strategies involve physical interventions (e.g., technique adjustments) and psychological interventions (e.g., sports psychology).
  • Building resilience is key to recovery from the yips with support from coaches, teammates, or professional help.

Understanding the Yips in Baseball

The yips in baseball refer to involuntary wrist spasms and other movements that hinder athletes from executing basic tasks, such as throwing or batting. These uncontrollable actions can be traced back to two primary causes: physical factors like focal dystonia and psychological factors like performance anxiety.

The yips can be caused by physical factors such as focal dystonia, which disrupts normal muscle control.

Physical Causes: Focal Dystonia

Focal dystonia, a neurological condition causing involuntary muscle contractions, is one of the physical causes of the yips in baseball. This condition affects the basal ganglia, a region of the brain responsible for controlling muscle movements. As a result, athletes may experience a sudden inability to perform basic tasks due to these involuntary muscle contractions.

For some, botox injections that utilize botulinum toxin to block nerve signals and alleviate spasms, may serve as a treatment option for focal dystonia.

Psychological Causes: Performance Anxiety

Performance anxiety, or the fear of failure during high-pressure situations, can contribute to the development of the yips in baseball players. This form of anxiety worsens the impact of the yips, leading athletes to become increasingly self-conscious and focused on their errors.

The yips in baseball cycle

One poor performance can mentally haunt an athlete, instigating a destructive cycle of fear and failure, which only intensifies the yips and may lead them to abandon tournament play. This affected task can have long-lasting consequences on their career.

Identifying the Symptoms

Symptoms of the yips include:

  • Involuntary muscle jerks
  • Tremors
  • Twitches
  • Spasms
  • Freezing
  • Numbness in the hand or fingers

These symptoms can affect an athlete’s ability to perform accurately. The hands and wrists are most commonly afflicted by the yips, with golfers experiencing these issues when putting and baseball players struggling to throw accurately within short distances.

The implementation of suitable interventions to combat the yips hinges on the recognition of the common symptom, physical symptoms, and other symptoms.

Risk Factors and Triggers

Several risk factors can make athletes more susceptible to the yips, including muscle overuse, high levels of stress or anxiety, perfectionism, and a history of trauma.

Muscle overuse, characterized by excessive or repeated usage of a muscle, can result in fatigue and injury. Elevated levels of stress or anxiety can lead to increased muscle tension, which may trigger the yips.

Perfectionism, the drive to reach flawlessness in every aspect of life, can amplify stress and anxiety. Lastly, a history of trauma can lead to increased stress and anxiety levels, making athletes more prone to the yips.

Treatment Strategies for Overcoming the Yips

Athletes can manage the yips effectively by combining physical interventions, including technique or equipment adjustments, with psychological interventions, such as consulting a sports psychologist. While no treatments have been proven universally successful, these interventions can be tailored to each athlete’s needs and preferences.

Physical Interventions: Technique Adjustments

Physical interventions for treating the yips include changing grip, technique, or equipment to alleviate muscle overuse and improve performance. Adjusting one’s grip can help reduce muscle fatigue and enhance performance.

Similarly, altering technique can assist in reducing muscle overuse, improving overall athletic ability in other sports, and learning to throw a ball accurately.

Finally, tweaking equipment may reduce muscle overuse and boost performance.

Psychological Interventions: Sports Psychology

Psychological interventions for treating the yips involve working with a sports psychologist to address performance anxiety, develop coping mechanisms, and improve mental resilience. Sports psychologists have the ability to formulate programs aimed at lowering performance-related stress or anxiety, enabling athletes to retake control of their skills and maintain their mental health.

They can also teach athletes various tactics to manage stress and anxiety, which can affect athletes, including relaxation techniques, cognitive restructuring, and goal setting.

Coping Mechanisms and Preventative Measures

Establishing coping strategies and preventative measures against the yips is key to sustaining optimal performance. To create a mental routine, athletes can:

  • Practice relaxation techniques
  • Focus on the process
  • Employ positive self-talk
  • Practice mindfulness

Keeping their focus on the present moment also aids athletes in maintaining control in high-pressure situations by utilizing techniques like deep breathing and task-oriented concentration. Seeking support from coaches or teammates can provide additional guidance and encouragement in overcoming the yips.

10 MLB Players Who Suffered from the Yips

The yips impacts players at all levels of baseball. Although it's less common in the majors since most players develop them long before they ascend through the system, there have been notable star players who fell victim to the yips. Here are a few of the biggest names.

#1 Steve Blass: Steve Blass was a pitcher for the Pittsburgh Pirates who suddenly lost his ability to control his pitches in 1973. This occurred just a year after he was a World Series hero. Unfortunately, Blass was unable to overcome the yips, and his career effectively ended in 1974.

#2 Chuck Knoblauch: Chuck Knoblauch was a second baseman who had a successful career with the Minnesota Twins and the New York Yankees. He developed throwing issues that he could not overcome. As a result, he was moved to left field and eventually retired due to his inability to throw accurately.

#3 Rick Ankiel: Rick Ankiel played as both a pitcher and an outfielder, primarily for the St. Louis Cardinals. He experienced the yips as a pitcher but managed to partially overcome them by switching to the outfield, where he had a successful second act in his career.

#4 Jon Lester Jon Lester was a pitcher who played for teams like the Boston Red Sox and the Chicago Cubs. Although he has had issues throwing to first base, he has adapted his game to minimize the impact of this weakness and continues to be a successful pitcher.

#5 Mackey Sasser: Mackey Sasser was a catcher who played for several teams, including the New York Mets. He developed a problem with throwing the ball back to the pitcher, which he was unable to overcome, ultimately affecting his career.

#6 Mark Wohlers: Mark Wohlers was a relief pitcher who played for the Atlanta Braves among other teams. He experienced the yips in 1998 but managed to partially recover. However, he was never as dominant as he was before the issue arose.

#7 Jarrod Saltalamacchia: Jarrod Saltalamacchia is a catcher who has played for teams like the Texas Rangers and the Boston Red Sox. Early in his career, he had issues throwing the ball back to the pitcher but managed to correct the problem and went on to have a successful career.

#8 Steve Sax: Steve Sax was a second baseman who played for the Los Angeles Dodgers and the New York Yankees. He went through a period where he made several throwing errors but managed to overcome the yips and continued to have a successful career.

#9 Gavin Cecchini: Gavin Cecchini is a shortstop who has played for the New York Mets. He has struggled with throwing accuracy and is still active, making it unclear whether he will be able to overcome the yips.

#10 Daniel Bard: Daniel Bard is a pitcher who has played for the Boston Red Sox and the Colorado Rockies. After years away from MLB due to the yips, he made a successful comeback with the Rockies in 2020, effectively overcoming the issue.

The Role of Coaches and Teammates

Coaches and teammates are pivotal in an athlete’s battle against the yips, especially during tournament play, as they contribute a supportive environment, comprehend the root causes, and provide advice on treatment approaches.

Coaches can offer tailored training to address the psychological and physical aspects of the yips, while teammates can provide emotional support and understanding. Together, they can create a supportive team atmosphere where athletes feel understood and motivated to work through the challenges of the yips.

The Path to Recovery: Building Resilience

Recovering from the yips is a journey of resilience-building, experience-learning, and formulation of strategies to avert future instances. Seeking professional assistance from a sports psychologist or mental skills coach is essential, as they can help athletes address the mental aspect of the yips, while pitching coaches or biomechanics experts can identify and correct any mechanical issues.

Athletes are required to show patience and persistency throughout the recovery process as it might take a while to fully overcome the yips.


In conclusion, the yips in baseball can significantly hinder an athlete’s performance, but understanding the symptoms, causes, and treatments can empower individuals to overcome this challenging condition. By employing a combination of physical and psychological interventions, developing coping mechanisms, and building resilience, athletes can regain control of their performance and triumph over the yips. Remember, with patience, persistence, and the right support, it is possible to conquer the yips and reclaim your game.

Frequently Asked Questions

Do the yips go away?

Yes, the yips can go away with a combination of physical and mental techniques. These include changes to grip or movement, as well as working with a sports psychologist to develop mental strategies. With some effort, it is possible to overcome the yips.

Why do the yips happen in baseball?

The yips in baseball are largely related to psychological issues such as sports performance anxiety and fear of failure, and can be exacerbated by muscular overuse. Additionally, the condition of focal dystonia has been linked to the phenomenon, as it causes involuntary muscle contractions during a specific task.

How can I recognize the symptoms of the yips?

The symptoms of the yips can include involuntary jerks, tremors, twitches, spasms or freezing, all of which can hinder an athlete's performance.

What treatment strategies can help overcome the yips?

Physical interventions, such as adjusting techniques or equipment, and psychological interventions, like working with a sports psychologist, are effective treatments for overcoming the yips.

How can coaches and teammates help athletes overcome the yips?

Coaches and teammates can support athletes by understanding the underlying causes of the yips and offering guidance on treatment strategies to help them overcome it.

About the author 

Nate McCallister

Nate is one of the co-founders of Baseballcentric.com.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked

{"email":"Email address invalid","url":"Website address invalid","required":"Required field missing"}
Subscribe to get the latest updates